October 10, 2023 – Nobel Prize 2023 – The Nobel Prize 2023 winners have been announced, recognising their contributions to humanity in the fields of Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, Peace, and Economic Sciences.
Alfred Nobel (1833-1896) was born in Stockholm, Sweden, on 21 October 1833. He was fluent in several languages, wrote poetry and drama.
He was also very interested in social and peace-related issues, and held views that were considered radical during his time.
Alfred Nobel’s interests are reflected in the prize he established in the year 1895. Each year, laureates are chosen for their remarkable achievements, pushing the boundaries of knowledge and fostering a better world.
Nobel Prize winners announced for 2023 are as follows:
Nobel Prize in Physics 2023
Physics was the area which Alfred Nobel mentioned first in his will from 1895.The Nobel Prize in Physics is awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden. First Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded to Wilhelm Röntgen who discovered X-radiation.
- The Nobel Prize in Physics 2023 has been awarded to Pierre Agostini, Ferenc Krausz, and Anne L’Huillier for developing new tools and exploring the world of electrons.
- They made it possible to watch electrons move. The experimental methods generate attosecond pulses of light to study electron dynamics in matter. An attosecond is 10 raised to the power of (−18) second, or one billionth of a billionth of a second. When electrons move in atoms and molecules, they move on attosecond timescales. By generating pulses of light that last tens or hundreds of attoseconds, scientists could study the movements of electrons.
- Pierre Agostini born on 23 July 1941, Tunis, French protectorate of Tunisia (now Tunisia) currently holds the position of Professor at The Ohio State University in Columbus, USA.
- Ferenc Krausz born on 17 May 1962, Mór, Hungary serves as the Director at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics in Garching, Germany, and is also a Professor at Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München.
- Anne L’Huillier born on 16 August 1958, Paris, France is currently serving as a Professor at Lund University in Sweden.
Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2023
The Nobel Prize in Chemistry is also awarded by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden. Chemistry was the most important science for Alfred Nobel’s own work. It was the second prize area that Nobel mentioned in his will.
- The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2023 has been jointly awarded to Moungi G. Bawendi, Louis E. Brus, and Alexei I. Ekimov.
- This prestigious recognition is in honour of their groundbreaking discovery and synthesis of quantum dots, nanoparticles so minuscule that their unique properties are entirely determined by their size.
- These tiny building blocks of nanotechnology have found wide-ranging applications, including illuminating televisions and LED lamps and aiding surgeons in the precise removal of tumour tissue, among many other innovative uses.
- Moungi G. Bawendi born in 1961, Paris, France currently serves as a Professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, MA, USA.
- Louis E. Brus born in 1943, Cleveland, OH, USA holds the position of Professor at Columbia University in New York, USA.
- Alexei I. Ekimov born in 1945, USSR (now Russia) was formerly the Chief Scientist at Nanocrystals Technology Inc. in New York, USA.
Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2023
The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine is awarded by the Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Physiology or medicine was the third prize area Nobel mentioned in his will.
- The Nobel Assembly at the Karolinska Institutet has jointly awarded the 2023 Nobel Prize in Medicine or Physiology Prize to Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman.
- It recognises their groundbreaking discoveries related to nucleoside base modifications, that paved the way for development of highly effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19.
- Katalin Kariko born on 17 January 1955, Szolnok, Hungary formerly served as the Senior Vice President and led the RNA protein replacement division at the German biotech firm BioNTech. She currently holds a professorship at the University of Szeged in Hungary and is an adjunct professor at the University of Pennsylvania (UPenn).
- Drew Weissman, the co-recipient was born on 7 September 1959, Lexington, MA, USA. He is a professor specialising in vaccine research at the University of Pennsylvania.
- The first vaccines to use the mRNA technology were those made by Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna against COVID-19.
Nobel Prize in Literature 2023
- The Nobel Prize in Literature is also awarded by the Swedish Academy, Stockholm, Sweden. Literature was the fourth prize area Alfred Nobel mentioned in his will.
- The Nobel Prize in Literature 2023 has been awarded to Jon Fosse for his innovative plays and prose which give voice to the unsayable.
Jon Fosse was born on 29 September 1959, Haugesund, Norway. He is a Norwegian author, translator, and playwright.
Nobel Peace Prize 2023
Nobel for Peace was the fifth and final prize area that Nobel mentioned in his will. The Nobel Peace Prize is awarded by a committee elected by the Norwegian Parliament (Stortinget).
- The Norwegian Nobel Committee has awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for 2023 to Narges Mohammadi in recognition of her unwavering commitment to fighting against the oppression of women in Iran and her tireless advocacy for human rights and freedom for all.
- Narges Mohammadi was born on 21 April 1972, Zanjan, Iran.
- Her fearless pursuit of justice has come at a tremendous personal cost, as demonstrated by her 13 arrests, five convictions, and an astonishing cumulative prison sentence of 31 years, accompanied by 154 lashes.
- The statement announcing her award also noted that Mohammadi remains incarcerated.
Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences 2023
The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences has been awarded 55 times to 93 laureates between 1969 and 2023 in Memory of Alfred Nobel.
- The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decided to award the 2023 Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel to Claudia Goldin. She has been awarded for having advanced our understanding of women’s labour market outcomes.
- Goldin, an American economic historian and a professor at Harvard University, provided the first comprehensive account of women’s earnings and labour market participation through the centuries.
- She has deeply studied 200 years of women’s participation in the workplace. She showed that despite continued economic growth, women’s pay did not continuously catch up with men’s and a divide still exists despite women gaining higher levels of education than men. Her research revealed the causes of change and the primary sources of the remaining gender gap, said the statement announcing her award.
Note:- The Nobel Peace Prize is distinct in its selection process as it is chosen by the Norwegian Nobel Committee and announced in Oslo, in contrast to the other Nobel Prizes, which are revealed in Stockholm.
Nobel Prize 2023 – Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)
Q. What is the Nobel Prize, and when was it established?
Ans: The Nobel Prize was established in 1895 by the will of Alfred Nobel. It is among the most prestigious recognitions for outstanding contributions to humanity in various fields.
Q. How are Nobel laureates chosen?
Ans: Nobel laureates are chosen each year on the basis of their remarkable achievements and contributions that push the boundaries of knowledge and promote a better world.
Q. Who received the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2023?
Ans: Claudia Goldin, an American economic historian and professor at Harvard University, received the Nobel Prize in Economic Sciences in 2023.
Q. What were Claudia Goldin’s contributions to economics?
Ans: Claudia Goldin provided the first comprehensive account of women’s earnings and their participation in the labour market throughout history. Her research has shed light on the causes of change and the sources of the gender pay gap.
Q. Who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2023?
Ans: Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman jointly received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 2023.
Q. What were Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman awarded for?
Ans: Katalin Kariko and Drew Weissman were recognised for their groundbreaking discoveries related to nucleoside base modifications, which has played a pivotal role in developing highly effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19.
Q. Which Nobel laureates were honoured for the Literature and Peace Prize in 2023?
Ans: Jon Fosse received the Nobel Prize in Literature for his innovative plays and prose. The Nobel Peace Prize was awarded to Narges Mohammadi for her unwavering commitment to fight for women’s rights and their human rights in Iran.